Red Republican subscribers

The Red Republican ran for 24 issues from June to November 1850, and almost every issue carried a list of subscribers.

The Red Republican was owned and edited by George Julian Harney, who had previously edited the principal Chartist newspaper, the Northern Star. Its main claim to fame is that it carried the first English translation of the Communist Manifesto authored by Karl Marx and Frederick Engels.

Harney left the Northern Star to launch the Red Republican  after falling out with Feargus O’Connor, its proprietor and, for more than a decade, the leading light of the Chartist movement. However, the great historian of Chartism, Dorothy Thompson, argues that Harney’s principal motive in leaving the Star was to detach himself from a paper with declining circulation and influence.

The Red Republican was situated firmly on the left wing of Chartism, and continued the extensive coverage of European issues that Harney had pioneered in his earlier Democratic Review and in the Northern Star (and for which he had been censured by O’Connor, who felt his editor should concentrate on the domestic fight for the franchise). It had a relatively open editorial policy, publishing the thoughts of revolutionaries such as Kossuth from Hungary, Mazzini from Italy, and Louis Blanc from France. It also carried the first English language edition of Karl Marx and Frederick Engels’ Communist Manifesto, translated by Helen Macfarlane who wrote under the nom de plume Howard Morton.

The Red Republican carried on after November 1850, but with a new title – The Friend of the People (Harney’s nom de plume had long been “l’ami du peuple”).

SUBSCRIPTIONS RECEIVED FOR “THE RED REPUBLICAN”
May 23, Messrs. Grassby 1s, Shute 1s, Miles 1s, Arnott 1s, Stallwood 1s, Godwin 1s, Piercy 1s, Vernon 1s, Massey 2s, Leno 1s, Ireland 1s, Ridley 1s, Wilkes 1s, Whitcombe 1s, Hitchings 1s, Milne 1s : May 31, “Whittington and Cat” per Mr Bloomfield 6s, Miss A.Langton 1s, Miss C.Langton 1s, Messrs. Pettie 1s, J.B.O’Brien 5s, Leno (Second Subscription) 2s.6d, : June 7, Messrs. Gerald Massey (Second Subscription) 10s, Walter Cooper 5s, John Rymill 2s.6d, George Rymill 2s.6d, Mark Thompson 2s.6d, Cook (of Bristol) 1s, Convivial Meeting (Dundee) 10s.3d, J.G. (Dundee) 3s, James Barrie 2s6d, A Proletarian 4d, T.Field 2s6d, Quirk 2s, per Mr Quirk 1s, Cameron 1s, Mrs Wil;kinson 1s, John Galpin 6d, Stephens 6d, Woodcock 2s, H Markall 1s, Roe 1s, Mrs Blake 3d, R.Levy 1s, J.Coles 1s, Wilkes 1s, Name Forgotten 1s, : June 14, W.H.Lanner 6d, W.T.Reeves 6d, A Friend 6d, Samel Guinaman 2s, Charles Hiscox 1s, William Knight 1s, W.E.Adams 3d, A Friend 1s, E.Sharland 1s, John Hemmin 1s, JP.Glenister 1s, Thomas Ryder 1s, Ernest Charles Ryder 6d, Julian Harney Kossuth Ryder 6d, Thomas Willey 6d, Robert Buckingham 1s, Thomas Haslape 1s, George Corby 1s, Joseph Casimer O’Meagher 3s, Friends at Smith’s Coffee House, Nottingham £1 10s, May 1s, James Glover 1s, Charles Clark 5s, Charles Herbery 3s, Morgan 1s, Floyd 1s, Davis 1s, G.Barber 1s, W.Enticot 6d, J.Cooper 6d, S.Sweetlove 6d, G Lewer 6d, J.Robinson 6d, W.Selff 1s, E.Knight 6d, J.Reed 1s, W.Mann 6d, A Friend 6d, John McCrea 1s, J.Rickards 6d, A Friend at Preston’s funeral 1s, Charles Ward £1, Ellen Bond £1, Sarah McDougal £1, John Ri8grose £1, William Martin £1, W.Wilson 6d, W.B.Roberts 2s, J.Peacock 3s.6d, H.R.Kay 2s.6d, Leicester per Bradsworth 9s, R.G.Gammage 2s, J.Collins 1s, W.Mellor 6d, A Friend at St.Clear 10s 6d, G.Munden 1s, G.J.Mantle 1s, T.Brown 6d, Slocum 6d, East London per W.Davis 7s, Jones 1s, Blake 6d, J.W.1s, W.Small 6d, A.Miles 6d, Cotterill 1s, Preston 6d, Egerton 6d, A.Black 2s6d, Hebden Bridge Democrats, per J.Mann 10s.1d.
Source: The Red Republican, No.1, Vol.1, Saturday 22 June 1850

SUBSCRIPTIONS RECEIVED FOR “THE RED REPUBLICAN”
June 21st, William Norman (Wingate Grange) 1s, J.Bell 3d, Mr Paris 1s, Hodges 1s, Bligh 1s, Jefery 1s, Mr Heath 1s, A.Fiddes 6d, W.Denovan 1s, J.Ironsides 2s6d, G.B. and R.O. 1s, Democratic Friends at Brighton per G.Battram 5s, Two Toilers 1s, T.Dunning 1s, G.J.Ellis 2d, A Chartist (Nantwick) 1s, Leigh Democrats, per M.P.Daly 5s, Two Fraternal Democrats, Liverpool, 1s, Gees 1s, Herbert 2s.6d, Nightingale 1s, E.Doherty 2s.6d, J.Doherty2s.6d, J.Benn 6d, New Radford, per S.Saunders 4s, A Friend (Cheltenham), per J Hemming 6d, C.Smuggs 2s.6d, Johnson 6d, T.Blake 2s, C.Ernest 2s.6d, Four Friends (York) 1s, J.Owen 1s, J.Aldams 2s, A Friend, Drake Street, Rochdale 1s, L.G. 4d, J.J.Bezer 1s, Alexandria, Vale of Levern, per J.M’Intyre 10s, Uxbridge Democrats 10s, Henry A.Ivory 2s, Mr Beal 1s.
In No.1 “George Rymill, 2s.6d,” should have been James Rymill; – the same amount.
Subscriptions received since June the 21st, will be acknowledged in No.3 of THE RED REPUBLICAN.
Subscriptions to be addressed to the Treasurer, “James Grassby, 96, Regent-street, Lambeth, London.”
Source: The Red Republican, No.2, Vol.1, Saturday 29 June 1850

SUBSCRIPTIONS RECEIVED FOR “THE RED REPUBLICAN”
June 28th : John Sideway 2s.6d, Andrew Fagin Bain 5s.0d, C.Stevenson 6d, James Taylor, Glasgow, 4s6d.
Source: The Red Republican, No.3, Vol.1, Saturday 6 July 2003

SUBSCRIPTIONS RECEIVED FOR “THE RED REPUBLICAN”
A Friend near the Bridge, Rochdale 1s, G.Mawby 1s, G.B.H. 2s.6d, H.Herrick 2s.6d, A Friend, per Mr Cooper 1s, Ditto 6d, Mr Wood 1s, Stanley Wood 1s.a6d, Charles Finley 6d, Joseph O’Brien 6d, George Naylor 6d, William Williamson 6d, John Taylor 3d, T.S.Longbottom 3s, Charles Snuggs 1s, Friends at Mauchline per Bruce Taylor 3s, James Gibson 1s, A Friend 6d, W.B., Rochester 1s, Mr Quirk 6d, Henry Nightingale 1s.6d, Henry J.cutting 1s.
In No.2 appeared the name of C.Smuggs 2s.6d, the name should have been Snuggs. In the same Number appeared the name of Mr Heath 1s., it should have been Mary Ann Heath.
Source: The Red Republican, No.4, Vol.1, Saturday 13 July 1850

SUBSCRIPTIONS RECEIVED FOR “THE RED REPUBLICAN”
None listed
Source: The Red Republican, No.5, Vol.1, Saturday 20 July 1850

SUBSCRIPTIONS RECEIVED FOR “THE RED REPUBLICAN”
None listed
Source: The Red Republican, No.6, Vol.1, Saturday 27 July 1850

SUBSCRIPTIONS RECEIVED FOR “THE RED REPUBLICAN”
John Farow 3d, James Arnot 3d, W.Newbold 3d, John Throne 3d, Matthew Lennon 1s, J.H.Ellis 1s, George Fountain 1s, Hugh Bryce 6d, W.B.Bowley 2s, Mr Jacobson 2s.6d, “A Red in the Guards” 1s.
Source: The Red Republican, No.7, Vol.1, Saturday 3 August 1850

SUBSCRIPTIONS RECEIVED FOR “THE RED REPUBLICAN”
W.Tope 1s, T.Squires 6d, J.Dyer 4d, T.Pearson, 6d, J.Mortimer 6d, G.Steadham 3d, T.Bowle 6d, B.Simons 6d, J.Babage 6d, G.Lawell 1s, J.Hocker 6d, John Leaver 1s, Samuel Leaver 3d, Charles Ernest, York, 2s.6d, S.Saunders, New Radford, 1s, W.Whitehead, Braco, 4s.
Source: The Red Republican, No.8, Vol.1, Saturday 10 August 1850

SUBSCRIPTIONS RECEIVED FOR “THE RED REPUBLICAN”
J.Cameron, Glasgow, 1s, J.Cameron, Hulme, 1s, Geo.Gill 6d, W.B. Rochester 6d, H.Garrett 6d, F.Garrett 6d, H.Garrett 6d, C.Tapral 6d, J.Moody 6d, R.L.B. £1.
Source: The Red Republican, No.9, Vol.1, Saturday 17 August 1850

SUBSCRIPTIONS RECEIVED FOR “THE RED REPUBLICAN”
C.F.,Devonport, 1s.
Source: The Red Republican, No.10, Vol.1, Saturday 24 August 1850

SUBSCRIPTIONS RECEIVED FOR “THE RED REPUBLICAN”
None listed
Source: The Red Republican, No.11, Vol.1, Saturday 31 August 1850

SUBSCRIPTIONS RECEIVED FOR “THE RED REPUBLICAN”
J.Cowen junior, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 10s, The Red Republicans of Padiham, per B.Pilling 6s, J.C.Hulme 6, Red Republicans of Coventry, per Mr A Yates, 10s, “Alister” 1s, Northampton, per Mr Bezyer, Mr R.Clark 6d, M.Cherry 6d, a Friend 1d, Jams Rymill (2nd subscription) 1s, G.Mantle (2nd subscription) 1s.
Source: The Red Republican, No.12, Vol.1, Saturday 7 September 1850

SUBSCRIPTIONS RECEIVED FOR “THE RED REPUBLICAN”
Macclesfield Red Republicans, per J West, 10s8d, W.Welsh 1s, W.B., Rochafdale 6d, William Brafield 1s, Julian Harney Brafield 1s, W.B.Robinson 1s, Matthew Roe 6d, R.Perry 6d, G.Corby 6d.
Source: The Red Republican, No.13, Vol.1, Saturday 14 September 1850

SUBSCRIPTIONS RECEIVED FOR “THE RED REPUBLICAN”
Thomas Guppey 6d, A “Red”, Langport 6d, Alpha Beta 1s, J.Hirley, Manchester, 1s, W.Mellor, Manchester (second subscription), 1s, T.S. and J.H., Bacup 5s, Robert Wotton 6d, O.D., 1s, Anglo Juvenal 1s.
Source: The Red Republican, No.14, Vol.1, Saturday 21 September 1850

SUBSCRIPTIONS RECEIVED FOR “THE RED REPUBLICAN”
None listed
Source: The Red Republican, No.15, Vol.1, Saturday 28 September 1850

SUBSCRIPTIONS RECEIVED FOR “THE RED REPUBLICAN”
T.E.Graham 2s.6d, Attercliffe, per S.Jackson, 1s.9d, “Alister” 6d, A Democrat, Berwick, 5d, Mr Adams, Northampton, 6d, C.Grampus 4d, J.Gibson, Kilbarchan, 1s, J.Pattison,6d.
Source: The Red Republican, No.16, Vol.1, Saturday 5 October

SUBSCRIPTIONS RECEIVED FOR “THE RED REPUBLICAN”
None listed
Source: The Red Republican, No.17, Vol.1, Saturday 12 October

SUBSCRIPTIONS RECEIVED FOR “THE RED REPUBLICAN”
“A Socailist” 5s, J.Bullus, Cheltenham, 6d, L.G., Rochdale, 3d, “Two Reds” 2d, “A Young Red” 1s, J.Wilson, Sheffield, 6d, W.Welsh, Glasgow, 1s.
Source: The Red Republican, No.18, Vol.1, Saturday 19 October

SUBSCRIPTIONS RECEIVED FOR “THE RED REPUBLICAN”
None listed
Source: The Red Republican, No.19, Vol.1, Saturday 26 October

SUBSCRIPTIONS RECEIVED FOR “THE RED REPUBLICAN”
An admirer of Le bon sans-culotte Jesus-Christ 10s, Five Reds, O’Connorville 1s, J.A., Glasgow, 4d, A.Fiddes, Aberdeen (2nd subscription), 6d, J.Sketchley 6d, “A Red”, Shrewsbury, 3d, James Main, Hamilton, 1s, Edward Burm, ditto, 6d, Robert Wood (a teetotaller) 1s.
Source: The Red Republican, No.20, Vol.1, Saturday 2 November

SUBSCRIPTIONS RECEIVED FOR “THE RED REPUBLICAN”
None listed
Source: The Red Republican, No.21, Vol.1, Saturday 9 November

SUBSCRIPTIONS RECEIVED FOR “THE RED REPUBLICAN”
Jacob Jones Smith 6d, “A Young Democrat”, Birmingham, 4d, Wm Muir, Dudley, and J.Chance, Stourbridge, 5s.
Source: The Red Republican, No.22, Vol.1, Saturday 16 November

SUBSCRIPTIONS RECEIVED FOR “THE RED REPUBLICAN”
A Sincere Democrat, Bayswater, 2s.6d, W.Symmonds, 6d, H.Davidson 4d.
Source: The Red Republican, No.23, Vol.1, Saturday 23 November

SUBSCRIPTIONS RECEIVED FOR “THE RED REPUBLICAN”
A Friend of the People 1s, D.Wright, Aberdeen, 1s.
Source: The Red Republican, No.24, Vol.1, Saturday 30 November

Manifesto of the German Communist Party

The following manifesto, which has since been adopted by all fractions of German Communists, was drawn up in the German language, in January 1848, by Citizens Charles Marx and Frederic Engels. It was immediately printed in London in the German language and published a few days before the outbreak of the Revolution of February. The turmoil consequent upon that great event made it impossible to carry out, at that time, the intention of translating it into all the languages of civilized Europe. There exist two different French versions of it in manuscript, but under the present oppressive laws of France, the publication of either of them has been found impracticable. The English reader will be enabled, by the following excellent translation of this important document, to judge of the plans and principles of the most advanced party of the German Revolutionists.

It must not be forgotten, that the whole of this Manifesto was written and printed before the Revolution of February.

“A frightful hobgoblin stalks throughout Europe. We are haunted by a ghost, the ghost of Communism. All the powers of the Past have joined in a holy crusade to lay this ghost to rest, — the Pope and the Czar, Metternich and Guizot, French Radicals and German police agents. Where is the opposition which has not been accused of Communism by its enemies in Power? And where the opposition that has not hurled this blighting accusation at the heads of the more advanced oppositionists, as well as at those of its official enemies? Two things appear on considering these facts. I. The ruling Powers of Europe acknowledge Communism to be also a Power. II. It is time for the Communists to lay before the world an account of their aims and tendencies, and to oppose these silly fables about the bugbear of Communism, by a manifesto of the Communist Party…”

(Extract from the first ever English language translation of the Communist Manifesto, The Red Republican, 9 November 1850.)